The scale of irregular migration towards Europe reached unprecedented levels in 2015, with over 1,000,000 migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea. Although Libya continues to be the primary departure point, Egypt’s geo-political position as one of the few stable countries in its immediate vicinity makes it a crucial partner in combating the evermore lucrative criminal enterprise of migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons (TiP). “Egypt is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labour and sex trafficking” as recognized by the 2016 Trafficking in Persons Report of the U.S. Department of State. Subsequently, a series of recommendations for the Government of Egypt have been outlined in the report. 1) In terms of protection, the Report recommends to increase training for all government officials on the anti-trafficking law and victim identification and referral procedures; 2) on the prosecution side, the Report recommends to increase investigations, prosecutions, and convictions of all forms of trafficking and adequately punish offenders.


In line with the recommendations of the 2016 TiP Report, this project aims at reinforcing Egyptian governmental efforts to combat trafficking in persons by scaling up the prosecution of trafficking cases and strengthening the protection of victims in Egypt. Specifically, it is expected that national actors implement rights based procedures to identify trafficking victims for referral to comprehensive protection services in line with Law 64/2010; and relevant national agencies effectively investigate, prosecute and try trafficking offenses and punish offenders in accordance with Law 64/2010.

  • Donors: US Department of State - Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration
  • Duration: October 2016 to September 2018
  • Location: Egypt
  • Beneficiaries: Government of Egypt, victims of trafficking (VoTs) and other vulnerable migrants
Expected Results
  • Governmental and non-government service providers have the skills, knowledge and procedures to identify and assist victims of trafficking in line with international standards.
  • Stakeholder consultations are organized to agree upon standard operating procedures for the National Referral Mechanism.
  • Victims of trafficking have access to protections services.
  • Relevant government officials have the knowledge and procedures to increase investigations, prosecutions and convictions of trafficking offences while safeguarding the rights of victims.
  • Relevant government officials exposed to international best practices through exchange visits.
  • Relevant government officials have accurate information and updated evidence on the current state of trafficking in persons in Egypt.
Links to Broader National and International Commitments
  • Egypt Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS): 2030 Vision - Social Justice Goal: “Social mobility provides protection mechanisms for expected and unexpected life-risks, simultaneously supports marginalized societal factions and offers protection to the most vulnerable”.
  • President El-Sisi Statement in front of the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly (2015): “Egypt hosts ever increasing numbers of refugees, who share with their Egyptian brothers and sisters, the same social, education and health services provided by the State, in spite of the economic burden this represents”.
  • Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process – “Developing cooperation at bilateral and regional level”; “Assisting in improving national capacity building in the field of migration management”; “Promoting a victim-centred approach”.
  • Valletta Action Plan (2015), Priority initiative 3: “Reinforce the protection of refugees and other displaced persons, strengthen capacities of countries of first asylum, transit and destination“; 4. “Prevention of and fight against irregular migration, migrant smuggling and trafficking in human beings”.
  • Sustainable Development Goals - Target 8.7: “Eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour”; Target 10.7: “Facilitate orderly, safe, regular, and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planed and well-managed migration policies”.
  • IOM Migration Governance Framework - Objective 3: “Migration should take place in a safe, orderly and dignified manner”.