Irregular migrants travelling along the North-Eastern African Migratory Route face protection challenges and are particularly vulnerable to exploitation and abuse in the form of trafficking in persons. Between January and 4 August 2015 alone, the number of irregular migrants leaving North Africa continued its meteoric rise with over 190,366 migrants reaching Europe across the Mediterranean; as many as during the whole of 2014. Trafficking in persons is fueled in light of the rising numbers of irregular migrants. The 2015 US Trafficking in Persons (TiP) Report recognizes that Egypt is a source, transit and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking and provides a series of recommendations for strengthening its efforts to fulfil its obligations under the Palermo Protocol: (1) prevention - implementing nationwide awareness campaigns since awareness raising efforts have thus far only reached a limited proportion of Egyptian society; 2) protection of victims of trafficking and vulnerable at-risk migrants - continuing to use the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) to systematically identify and assist victims  among vulnerable groups; 3) prosecution - an increase in prosecutions and convictions as well as increased training for all government officials.


The project aims at supporting Egypt’s efforts to address irregular migration and trafficking in persons in accordance to its international obligations. It is expected that: 1) in terms of prevention: Egyptian youth and other at risk groups demonstrate enhanced employability and better understanding of the risks of irregular migration and dangers of being trafficked; 2) in terms of protection: Egyptian and non-Egyptian victims of trafficking are properly identified and receive comprehensive protection services; 3) in terms of prosecution: governmental actors increase prosecution and convictions of trafficking and punish offenders in accordance with Law 64/2010.

  • Donors: USAID
  • Duration: October 2015 to December 2017
  • Location: Egypt (notably Qena, Minia, Asyut, Aswan)
  • Beneficiaries: Egyptian youth; low, medium and high skilled Egyptian graduates in the tourism sector
Expected Results
  • Demand driven curricula for vocational training courses available.
  • Vocational training centers (VTCs) infrastructure, business plan, and human resources in place to fully functionalize the centers.
  • MoM and ETF officials have the skills and relevant international experience to efficiently manage VTCs in the tourism sector.
  • Reliable skills assessment and certification system established.
  • Up-skilling courses and job placement services available to graduates/jobseekers in tourism.
  • Youth and children in target communities are informed about the risks of irregular migration and the dangers of trafficking in persons as well as safe and regular alternatives.
  • A detailed report reviewing Egypt’s legislative framework on the protection of domestic workers is made available.
  • NCCPIM-TIP and relevant actors have the necessary resources to operationalize the NRM.
  • Service providers have the necessary resources and technical capacities to expand protection services for vulnerable Egyptian children.
  • VoTs and at-risk populations have access to comprehensive protections services to alleviate their vulnerability.
  • NCCPIM-TIP has the technical capacities to strengthen the investigation and prosecution of trafficking offenses.
Links to Broader National and International Commitments
  • Egypt Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS): 2030 Vision – Economic pillar: “An active global player responding to international developments, maximizing value added, generating decent and productive jobs”; Social Justice: “A fair interdependent society characterized by equal economic, social, political rights and opportunities realizing social inclusion”; Education: “Providing the necessary skills to students and trainees to think creatively, and empower them technically and technologically”.
  • President El-Sisi Statement in front of the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly (2015): “[We] are in dire need of a model that presents new prospects for our youth, providing them with opportunities for a brighter future”; “Egypt hosts ever increasing numbers of refugees, who share with their Egyptian brothers and sisters, the same social, education and health services provided by the State, in spite of the economic burden this represents”.
  • Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process – “Assisting in improving national capacity building in the field of migration management”; “Stepping up prevention measures”; “Improving identification and prosecution of criminal networks”; “Promoting a victim-centred approach”; “Promoting sustainable development in countries of origin and transit in order to address the root causes of irregular migration”.
  • Valletta Action Plan (2015): Priority 1: “Development benefits of migration and addressing root causes of irregular migration and forced displacement”; 4: “Prevention of and fight against irregular migration, migrant smuggling and trafficking in human beings”.
  • Sustainable Development Goals – Goal 8. “Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all”; 10.7: “Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration”; 16: “Promote peaceful and inclusive societies”.
  • IOM Migration Governance Framework – Objective 1: “Good migration governance and related policy should seek to advance the socioeconomic wellbeing of migrants and society”; 3: “Migration should take place in a safe, orderly and dignified manner”.