Flows through the Middle East and North Africa towards Europe have increased dramatically following the Arab Spring in 2011 and more recently due to violence and political instability in Libya, Syria and Yemen, coupled with movements along the North-Eastern African Migration Route. Arrivals of migrants and refugees to Europe by sea alone surpassed 1 million in 2015, a figure that amounts to four times the total for all of 2014. During the same period, 3,771 migrants and refugees died in the Mediterranean Sea, surpassing the total number of migrant deaths in 2014. In addition, the scale of irregular child migration is unprecedented as more than 1 in 5 migrants arriving in Europe are children. The irregularity of such movements coupled with new opportunities for abuse renders mixed migratory flows ever more vulnerable. Since 2013, NOAH I-III contributed to the advancement of important milestones agreed upon between Europe and Africa in addressing the root causes of irregular migration and trafficking in persons in an effort to establish a rights-based migration management system (AU-Horn of Africa Initiative on Human Trafficking and Smuggling of Migrants; EU-Horn of Africa Migration Route Initiative (Khartoum Process), the Valletta Summit on Migration). On a national level, relevant governmental and non-governmental stakeholders received continuous support to enhance their understanding of and capacity to address mixed migratory flows along the North-Eastern African Migration Route through technical assistance and trainings, as well as through support in developing targeted awareness raising campaigns.
Building upon the achievements of the previous phases, NOAH IV contributes to consolidating regional dialogue and governmental capacities to address irregular migration and to uphold the human rights of vulnerable migrants along the North-Eastern African Migration Route. Specifically, it is expected that, in terms of 1) coordination: target governments and relevant stakeholders advance regional dialogues to coordinate joint efforts in addressing irregular migration and the development of harmonized rights-based migration management systems; 2) in terms of protection: vulnerable migrants receive enhanced protection services through protection systems consolidated by state and non-state actors, including in crisis situations.
- Evidence-based policy and programming: NA MMTF provides target governments with timely information on mixed migration trends through stakeholder coordination to inform regional dialogue, evidence-based policy and programming.
- Technical capacities of national authorities and civil society partners are strengthened to institutionalize and/or expand rights-based migration management systems in the region.
- Capacity building: National authorities have skills, knowledge and procedures to develop and implement whole of government migration management policies to uphold the fundamental rights of migrants in cooperation with relevant stakeholders.
- Direct assistance: Urgent and immediate needs of vulnerable migrants are satisfied, including through the provision of return assistance.
- Emergency migration management: Government agencies and relevant stakeholders receive targeted support to ensure humanitarian responses to crisis situations.
- Awareness raising: Migrants and host communities benefit from targeted information campaigns on the risks of irregular migration and trafficking in persons, as well as on positive alternatives at home and abroad.
Egypt Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS): 2030 Vision – Social Justice: “Creating a fair, integrated society that is characterized by equality in rights and economic, social and political opportunities. Social mobility provides protection mechanisms for expected and unexpected life-risks, simultaneously supports marginalized societal factions and offers protection to the most vulnerable.”
President El-Sisi Statement in front of the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly (2015): “Egypt hosts ever increasing numbers of refugees, who share with their Egyptian brothers and sisters the same social, education and health services provided by the State, in spite of the economic burden this represents”.
Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process – “Developing cooperation at bilateral and regional level between countries of origin, transit and destination to tackle irregular migration and criminal networks”; “Assisting in improving national capacity building in the field of migration management; “Assisting the national authorities in stepping up prevention measures […]”.
Valletta Action Plan (2015), Priority Initiative 1.3: “Addressing instability and crises, through supporting state building, rule of law and good governance”; 3: “Reinforce the protection of refugees and other displaced persons, strengthen capacities of countries of first asylum, transit and destination“; as well as 4: “Prevention of and fight against irregular migration, migrant smuggling and trafficking in human beings”.
Sustainable Development Goals - Target 10.7: “Facilitate orderly, safe, regular, and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planed and well-managed migration policies”; target 8.7: “Take immediate and effective measures to […] end human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour”.
IOM Migration Governance Framework – Objective 3: “Migration should take place in a safe, orderly and dignified manner”.