In 2010, the results of a study conducted by the National Centre for Social and Criminological Research showed that Egypt is a source, transit and destination country for trafficking in persons, in the most prevalent forms: (1) transactional marriages, especially of underage girls; (2) child labour exploitation; (3) trafficking in street children; (4) sexual exploitation and prostitution; and (5) trafficking in persons for the purpose of organ trade. This was then confirmed by the UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo, who highlighted the trafficking of non-Egyptian nationals for forced (domestic) labour. Furthermore, the annual Trafficking in Persons Report regularly refers to instances of human trafficking and extortion of migrants in the Sinai Peninsula at the hands of criminal groups.

Egypt ratified the Palermo Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime in March 2004, and approved the Law on Combating Trafficking in Person in 2010. In addition, the Government made efforts to counter human trafficking with the support of IOM, such as targeted interventions in the field of forced marriages of minors through law enforcement trainings, and the establishment of the subsequent National Action Plan (NAP) for its implementation. However much work still needs to be done to consolidate and ensure the sustainability of achievements made, including the development of a targeted national level awareness-raising campaign and the establishment of a consistent and up-to-date data collection on trends and forms of human trafficking in Egypt.


The project aims at contributing to the Government of Egypt’s efforts to ensure that illicit human trafficking to and through Egypt is monitored and curbed and victims of trafficking are promptly identified and assisted. The desired outcome of the project is an updated National Action Plan against trafficking of human beings is effectively implemented.

  • Donors: European Union
  • Duration: December 2014 to September 2017
  • Location: Egypt
  • Beneficiaries: NCCPIM&TIP, law enforcement officers, civil society organizations, media professionals, vulnerable at-risk communities and Victims of Trafficking (VoTs)
Expected Results
  • NCCTIP Secretariat and its respective units have the resources to produce and implement evidence based policies.
  • Relevant officials from the Government of Egypt and members of Egyptian civil society have the knowledge needed to implement the updated NAP and National Referral Mechanism, as well as the Law 64/2010.
  • Awareness raising materials on the dangers associated with trafficking are available to Egyptians and migrants in Egypt.
Links to Broader National and International Commitments
  • Egypt Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS): 2030 Vision - Social Justice Goal: “Social mobility provides protection mechanisms for expected and unexpected life-risks, simultaneously supports marginalized societal factions and offers protection to the most vulnerable”.
  • President El-Sisi Statement in front of the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly (2015): “Egypt hosts ever increasing numbers of refugees, who share with their Egyptian brothers and sisters, the same social, education and health services provided by the State, in spite of the economic burden this represents”.
  • Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process – “Developing cooperation at bilateral and regional level”; “Assisting in improving national capacity building in the field of migration management”; “Promoting a victim-centred approach”.
  • Valletta Action Plan (2015), Priority initiative 1.3: “Addressing instability and crises, through supporting state building, rule of law and good governance”; 3: “Reinforce the protection of refugees and other displaced persons, strengthen capacities of countries of first asylum, transit and destination“; 4. “Prevention of and fight against irregular migration, migrant smuggling and trafficking in human beings“.
  • Sustainable Development Goals - Target 8.7: “Eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour”; Target 10.7: “Facilitate orderly, safe, regular, and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planed and well-managed migration policies”.
  • IOM Migration Governance Framework - Objective 3: “Migration should take place in a safe, orderly and dignified manner”.