Human mobility in North Africa is characterized by complex movements originating within the region, as well as in other parts of Africa and the Middle East. They involve regular and irregular migrants, including those escaping poverty, discrimination and other human rights violations, those in search of a more dignified life and better opportunities, refugees and asylum seekers, those looking to reunite with family abroad, smuggled migrants, victims of trafficking and unaccompanied minors. People travelling along these routes often experience severe human rights violations. Refugees and migrants are smuggled, trafficked and held hostage for ransom, thereby being subjected to extortion, forced labour, sexual exploitation, slavery-like practices, servitude and torture, sometimes resulting in death. Migrants and refugees are stranded in transit or get caught up in conflicts and remain in situations of increasing vulnerability. State practice and actions of state authorities can include mandatory detention, inadequate conditions of detention, violence and discrimination by border authorities and unlawful and disproportionate use of force. To address the rights, needs and vulnerabilities of the people moving in these mixed and complex flows, further insight is needed into the circumstances of their movements.